• Comparing an edited or corrected document against an earlier version to ensure that corrections and revisions have been inserted.
  • Reading an edited document for typographical errors and minor mistakes in grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, etc.
  • Reading a formatted document to be sure that it conforms to a particular style or design.
  • Checking hyperlinks on a website.


Copy editing 

  • Correcting mistakes and inconsistencies in grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, treatment of numbers, etc.
  • Canadianizing spelling, punctuation and other conventions if the original text was written for American or British readers.
  • If there is a preferred dictionary or style guide, ensuring that it has been followed.
  • Editing tables, figures and lists for correctness and consistency.
  • Checking accuracy of numerical material.
  • Indicating placement of illustrations.
  • Marking levels of headings.


Stylistic editing 

  • Clarifying meaning, polishing language, eliminating jargon.
  • Ensuring that the language is suitable for the intended audience. 
  • Creating or recasting tables or figures.
  • Checking or correcting reading level. 


Structural (substantive) editing 

  • Reorganizing the structure or content of a document to make it more comprehensible to the intended audience. 



  • Creating a new document or manuscript (or new parts of a document) from the original material.



  • Creating new content suited to your document or publication and the intended audience.
  • The source may be your materials or subject matter expert or our research.
  • Speech writing.


Formatting and design 

  • Developing a formatting style that is in keeping with the conventions of professional publishing (or applying a predetermined style).

Elements of formatting may include typeface, type size, spacing, paraqraph style and margins for each part of a document, such as the text, headings, quotations, lists, footnotes, reference lists, tables, captions for illustrations, and so on.   

  • We offer full graphic-design services through our network of colleagues and associates.